• Follow Facebook
  • Follow on Twitter
  • Follow on YouTube
  • Add RSS Feed
 
 
:: Breaking
          News >>
 
 
 
 
     
 Health & You:
MUMPS
Jun 19, 2013
By: DR. E.I. Okereke








Nigeria: -

Mumps is an Acute infectious disease, highly contagious and used to be common in children (school aged) before the advent of MMR Vaccine in 1988.

Mumps is recognized by a painful swelling, located at the side of the face under the Ears (Swelling of the parotid glands), giving the patient a distinctive “hamster face” appearance; the swelling can be one side while and other organs may be involved.

Constitutional symptoms vary and may be inapparent, and include headaches, joint pains and a high temperature. Although the infection is usually not serious, mumps share symptoms with more serious types of infections such as glandular fever and tonsillitis, but it is always best to visit your GP to confirm or rule out mumps.

Mumps occurs throughout the World with an annual incidence of about 100 to1000 cases per 100,000 populations in the absence of immunization. It has an epidemic peak every 2-5 years.

Mumps is largely an endemic disease, can occur throughout the year with the peak incidence in winter and spring. Epidemics are often associated with over-crowding.

CAUSATIVE AGENT:

The Mumps virus is an RNA virus known as Myxovirus parotiditis, classified as genus Rubulavirus of the family paramyxoviridae. It can be isolated from the saliva or from swabs taken from the surface of the stenson’s duct (of the parotid glands). The virus is also found in blood, urine, human milk e.t.c.

MODE OF SPREAD:

Mumps is spread the same way as cold and flu. Infected droplets of saliva can be inhaled or picked up from surfaces and passed into the mouth or nose. It can also be by direct contact with an infected person.

A person with mumps is most contagious one to two days, sometimes up to Six days before the onset of symptoms, and Five days or more after the symptoms appear. It is important at this stage to prevent spreading the infection to others, particularly teenagers and young adults who have not been vaccinated.

Maximum infectivity is just before and at the onset of parotiditis. Incubation period (period from time of contact with person with the disease to manifestation of symptom) varies from two to three weeks, usually Eighteen days.

Once the swelling of the glands has subsided, the patient may be regarded as no longer infectious. Infection to members of same household (secondary attack rate) is estimated at about 86%.

WHO IS AFFECTED?

Mumps is the most common case of Parotiditis in school age children between 5 to 9 years. However, no age is exempted if there is no previous immunity. It tends to be more severe in adults than children. Most children below six months of age are immunized because of material antibodies.

Once infected with the virus, It confers a lifelong immunity.

SYMPTOMS:

Symptoms may be apparent or inapparent. Patients with inapparent symptoms account for 30-40% of all cases and appear to be responsible for maintaining the cycle of infection.

In the case where symptoms are apparent, they include;

1. Pain and swelling on either side of the face under the ears and may also be seen below the jaw (Sublingual and submandibular glands).

2. The child often complains of “ear ache” in the affected side prior to the onset of swelling.

3. There may be pain or stiffness on opening the mouth before the swelling of the gland is evident.

4. Organs like the testes, ovaries, central nervous system, pancreas, prostrate, may be affected.

5. There may be constitutional symptoms like fever, headaches, e.t.c which may last three to five days. The swelling normally subsides slowly over one to two weeks.

CONTROL AND TREATMENT:

There is currently no cure for Mumps. It usually run its course and should pass within two weeks. Treatment is given as symptoms evolve and these include:

  1. Using pain-killers as Ibuprofen or Paracetamol.
  2. Applying a cold compress to swollen glands to reduce pain.

The control of mumps is difficult because the disease is infectious even before diagnosis is made.

The long and variable incubation period and the occurrence of subclinical cases make control of spread difficult. Cases should be isolated till the clinical manifestations subside.

  1. Articles used by patients should be disinfected immediately.
  2. Contacts should be kept under surveillance (Continuous monitoring).

COMPLICATIONS:

Mumps will normally subside without causing serious damage to a person’s health. Complications occur, but are not serious. They include inflammation of extra salivary gland organ.

1. Orchitis

  • This is testicular swelling and tenderness
  • It is the commonest extra salivary gland manifestation of mumps in adults

Unilateral (affecting one testis) in about 75 percent of cases.

  • Bilateral orchitis (affecting two testes) is rare
  • In about 20-40 percent of post-pubertal men, it is accompanied by fever which develops typically 7-10 days after the onset of Parotiditis.
  • It is not yet a fact that orchitis lead to sterility in men.

2. Oophooritis (inflammation of the ovaries)

3. Pancreatitis (inflammation of the Pancreas)

4. Thyroditis (inflammation of the Thyroid gland)

5. Neuritis (inflammation of the Neurons)

6. Myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscles)

7. Meningoencephalitis (inflammation of the Brain coverings)

Rare complications include;

1. Nerve deafness

2. Polyarthritis

3. Hydrocephalus

4. Encephalitis

5. Cerebral edema

6. Cerebella ataxis (Involves a very unsteady gait)

7. Serious neurologic manifestation and sometimes, death

8. Facial palsy

9. Myelitis

Mumps is one of the main infectious causes of sensorineural deafness affecting approximately 5 per 100,000 mumps patients.

In the first 3 months of pregnancy, mumps infection can cause spontaneous miscarriage, not necessarily congenital malformation.

 

PREVENTION.

Ensure your children are protected against mumps by making sure they are given the combined MMR Vaccine (Mumps, Measles and Rubella).

First dose should be given around 12-13 months of age and a second booster dose before they start school. With both doses, the vaccine provides 95% protection against mumps.

It should not be administered to pregnant women, patients receiving immune suppressing therapy or to severely ill patient.

DR. E.I. OKEREKE

MBBS, ANIM.

 


unpanttyclalp said:
[url=http://www.arasardegna.com/Moduli/Consigli/mod/woolrich-bologna-spaccio-32izA.asp]woolrich bologna spaccio[/url] A complaint that a lot of individuals have is related to a pc that turns off or restarts unexpectedly. Simple as that! She\'s pregnant with her third child and has decided a more low-key and intimate showroom presentation at Celine\'s HQ in Paris is best, rather than a full-on catwalk show as in past seasons. At present, experts agree it is taken into account which a jolt regarding coloring about the repeated structure is really commonly exactly who look for using their company individual vogue intentions.
[url=http://www.arasardegna.com/moduli/consigli/vssv/prezzi-borse-louis-vuitton-f6iBN.asp]prezzi borse louis vuitton[/url] When reserving your trip to Vegas, it is really worth having a look at deals which include resorts louis vuitton bolsas too. I\'m get a hanging out and that\'s why don\'t -- parties and that\'s why don\'t hang out -- not part of show business because. Aided by the reduced resource, the particular of the blooms may also strengthen as the hard to come by him or her in days gone by.
[url=http://www.arasardegna.com/moduli/consigli/vssv/borse-usate-louis-vuitton-PQoSY.asp]louis vuitton borse prezzi[/url] Comme les deux plongeurs, on ressort de cette visite aux Gants de l\'ocan heureux, le lundi 1er avril, 20h.. He\'s a comedian who specializes in song parodies, sung in the style of the original performers. Alternatively though the replicas would likely provide the buy and sell notable initialed or monogrammed in the company so that it is feel and look particularly the same as the versions coming from the accessories throughout People from france and Venice.
[url=http://www.arasardegna.com/moduli/consigli/vssv/borsa-alma-louis-vuitton-YOPQ7.asp]louis vuitton borse prezzi[/url] For anyone who is full-figured as well as high, 35cm as well as 40cm Birkin might appear greatest. As the show continues, models come out in dresses that are befitting for a cocktail party or a charity or benefit. Your use of the site indicates your agreement to be bound by the Terms of Use..
[url=http://www.arasardegna.com/moduli/consigli/vssv/borse-di-louis-vuitton-7y8TZ.asp]louis vuitton borse prezzi[/url] Bieber, 19, came under fire on social media for his written comments after visiting the Anne Frank House in Amsterdam over the weekend, accused of being \"self-serving\" and \"tasteless\". Shielded in beautiful materials from in just, this precise synthetic leather padded python situation generates a intensive test to notice the genuine incredible human beingDespite the fact that everybody is exploring for a modern-day customized girls purse to transport for the Springtime 2012 time of year, it can be a big-stop endeavor. Alla maniera di serate generalmente inteso per concludere celui-ci immobilitquiude, portando una enorme sacchetto novantesimo davvero una elegantemente meta.
[url=http://www.arasardegna.com/Moduli/Consigli/mod/woolrich-prezzo-V52o4.asp]prezzo woolrich[/url] Kenya. In this post, he talks about how government-endorsed More . Wrap the scarf around your waist.
[url=http://www.arasardegna.com/Moduli/Consigli/mod/giubbotti-uomo-woolrich-msH3c.asp]giubbotti uomo woolrich[/url] It All Coming Back To Me Now. On a flight from Paris to London in 1984, her favorite handbag, a Hermes Kelly bag spilled the content onto the floor. Shrewder yet was the decision to team up with Franco Dragone, the one-time director of Cirque du Soleil, who created O and Myst the two most popular shows in Las Vegas.
[url=http://www.arasardegna.com/Moduli/Consigli/mod/woolrich-outlet-JhRI9.asp]woolrich outlet[/url] It is just a better mix of black and white, which in turn provides a sense of splendor and tranquility excellent. Etioopia. Hand bag.

[url=http://www.arasardegna.com/moduli/consigli/vssv/borsa-louis-vuitton-prezzo-Sv5uZ.asp]prezzi borse louis vuitton[/url] The luxury goods maker won $32 million from two ISPs and the man who ran them after proving to a jury that the ISPs had full knowledge that they hosted mainly websites for counterfeit goods\"\"and refused to take action.. Il n\'y a pas si longtemps, en 2005, China Minmetals faisait une offre pour acheter Noranda, la plus grande entreprise minire canadienne. Replica Hermes handbags are priced a little higher than some many other brands of replica handbags for a high qualities. [url=http://www.arasardegna.com/moduli/consigli/vssv/louis-vuitton-originale-PXaBF.asp]prezzi louis vuitton[/url] What is more, an authenticity card should match the serial number. If you arent familiar with which games to choose and how to make sure you land up winning more money than you spent on the tickets, there are hordes of advice sites you ca . They aren online. [url=http://www.arasardegna.com/moduli/consigli/vssv/borse-louis-vuitton-JF3YU.asp]prezzi borse louis vuitton[/url] Performing have the desired effect on the an workplace and spending going to be the vast majority to do with going to be the day all over the an all in one chair he is under be the case accompanied based on a multi functional calming massage on going to be the shoulder blades area for those times when your family are engaged back another one This may help throughout the preventing Stress Headache pains back and forth from just around the corner back and reaching an all in one persistent situation. Streamer bag was first introduced by Georges Vuitton in 1901 after he traveled the United States where he toured various cities, such as New York, Philadelphia and Chicago. The traditional monogram and quatrefoil signature design all the time can appeal to appreciations from someone particular hidden in the crowd. [url=http://www.arasardegna.com/moduli/consigli/vssv/louis-vuitton-padova-cFeug.asp]prezzi borse louis vuitton[/url] Right from the basic material used in the manufacturing to the accessories used to enhance their style and look; everything is selected after quality tests to ensure that end-product turn out to be simply superb. The Greek Mythology shows the wisdom of Greeks. All that you should do is get yourself Hermes replica designer handbags. [url=http://www.arasardegna.com/Moduli/Consigli/mod/woolrich-sito-ufficiale-giubbotti-3qtdx.asp]prezzo woolrich[/url] The very best expanse covering proficiency can be gained by just extention encapsulate appliance use. Considering the variety of inferior knockoffs around, it will require a little investigation company work and a small amount of background work. Feel free! Do something instantly, we offer Celine Bags Boston Leather along with at wholesale prices as well as list large low cost, Save your valuable cash begin right here! Cheap Celine Bags are emblematic of the highest standards of quality and beauty and this is evident in everything from the quality leather.. [url=http://www.arasardegna.com/Moduli/Consigli/mod/giubbotti-woolrich-uomo-T86il.asp]giubbotti woolrich uomo[/url] Your use of the site indicates your agreement to be bound by the Terms of Use.. Some bags could manage over $100,1000, in accordance with the adornment like diamonds and other your with pride athletics bags, Birkin, her as they are the token in the Point out worldwide can be affluent. Some people do not know the thin line that isolates casual through business.

Leave your comments below:
Name:
Phone:
11 digits, no dashes
Email:
Your Comment:

Type the Captcha here:
 

 

 
 
Already a member?
Then, please sign in below
  Email: 
  Password: